Logical Relations across Units

Logical relations can link different kinds of units in writing: they can link clauses in a sentence, sentences in a paragraph or paragraphs in larger stretches of writing (NB Some conjunctions, like and and or can link nouns, adverbs and adjectives, but in this role they do not contribute greatly to the cohesiveness of a text as discussed in this section).

Click the column headings to see an example:

Across paragraphs in a section Across sentences in a paragraph Across clauses in a sentence

The significance and utility of the life history in sociology is based on the central tenet that it provides ‘an account of individual experience which reveals the individual's actions as a human agent and as a participant in social life’ (Blumer 1939:29).

Yet, there is more to it than that. In many ways, the life history is a means of focussing on the relationship between biography, structure and history. (from In-Depth Interviewing: Researching people, Minichiello et al 1990:164).

The research did not use a large enough sample. In addition, the results were contradictory.

The research did not use a large enough sample and the results were contradictory.

Whereas pain and discomfort usually lead to avoidance behaviour, hunger and thirst usually lead a person to seek food and drink.

Exercise 1

  • Read the following text on learning in the workplace.
  • Find the conjunctions which suggest that a logical relation is being made (you should ignore and).
  • Drag them into the table provided below according to the type of relation being expressed (eg. addition, condition, etc).
  • Identify what units they join by checking the appropriate box (P = paragraphs; S = sentences; C = clauses i.e parts of a sentence)

Non-performance may be the result of a number of factors. Although the inability to transfer ‘performance’ from the training situation to complex work environments is one possible factor, the importance of workers' commitment and willingness to perform cannot be underestimated. A limited notion of skills formation is unlikely to provide productivity changes of any significance. On the other hand, inclusion of the social dimensions of work would likely assist in developing increased worker commitment. That is, it is believed that, if worker commitment was given a share of centre stage, a broader perspective on developing skills in the workplace could be attained.

However, since a narrow perspective of restructuring is occurring in most workplaces, it is clear that controls for education generally and workplace training in particular have been placed in the hands of industry. Consequently, a situation has arisen in which power is distributed unequally. Furthermore, it is apparent that the role of the state in determining the current relevance assigned to education has been downgraded.


Addition & ReplacementComparison & ContrastExemplification & RestatementCause & ConditionTime & Place

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