Module6: Results

Structuring the References

References explanation

The references list

Structure: References Explanation

go to exercise

If you are using the research and ideas of others in your report, you must acknowledge these. If you summarise research or ideas or state a fact from a particular author, you need to reference these. If you quote from a source, you must use quotation marks or set the material apart from the main text by indenting. The quote must also be acknowledged with a reference which includes the page number. In science reports written in the early undergraduate years, your lecturers would prefer you to summarise the research and ideas of others rather than use quotations. This shows your lecturer that you understand the subject matter.

There are certain rules or conventions to follow when you are referring to the work of others. These rules vary between disciplines, so it is important to find out what is accepted in each subject and course. A properly cited reference to the literature enables another person to locate it. The most important thing is to be CONSISTENT and use ONLY one reference convention when you are citing references in your text or creating your reference list.

REMEMBER, IF YOU DO NOT ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCES, YOU CAN BE ACCUSED OF PLAGIARISM i.e. 'presenting another person's ideas, findings or work as one's own' (Academic Board Resolutions: Academic Honesty in Coursework (plagiarism).

The examples shown in this section use the name and date system or the Harvard system. For more examples and information on the Harvard system go to: